Financial services regulation has been at the forefront of EU decision-making for the best part of a decade, following the global financial crisis. Before the new architecture has bedded in, financial services firms are again looking at an uncertain future.

The potential loss of passporting rights for the City of London during Brexit negotiations, as-well-as concern about further threats to the financial system resulting from unstable economies in the Eurozone may not only lead to changed business circumstances, but a new array of reputational risks.

Meanwhile, the European Commission is focussed on stimulating greater business finance through its Capital Markets Union (CMU) and the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI) projects.